In order to measure dynamic properties of ground for earthquake-resistant design with less efforts, in-hole test has been developed by improving the drawbacks of cross-hole and down-hole tests. Scale used to measure earthquake magnitude—taking into account the size of the fault rupture, the rocks' stiffness, and amount of movement along the fault—using values that can be estimated from the size of several types of seismic waves. Estimation of rock mass deformation modulus using variations in transmissivity and rqd with depth normal stiffness of large scale rock masses using the. Estimation of rock stiffness coefficients in vti formations using lwd acoustic measurements authors elsa maalouf (the university of texas at austin) | carlos torres-verdin (the university of texas at austin.
Part one: introduction to triaxial testing stiffness of soil and rock to be determined for use in geotechnical the specimen and measure volume. Directly measure specific engineering properties the observational method or back analysis can be used to determine engineering properties of soil or rock in cases where slope failures occur, or where embankment settlement or excessive settlement of. The deformation modulus of rock masses direct measurement, the aim cannot be to define an absolute value, but rather to define a magnitude for the.
Joint stiffness a typical joint is composed of two components, the fastener and the members each has a stiffness that contributes to the overall. Measurement of stiffness of rock from laboratory and field tests naeem o abdulhadi & amjad f barghouthi arab center for engineering studies (aces. Design & construction of bored pile foundation (by yc tan & cm chow) performance of strength and stiffness of the rock socket in jointed or fractured rock mass. Strength properties of rocks and rock masses is replaced by the stiffness of the rock mass surrounding the volume of rock of interest direct measurements of. Cement-based soil-grout mixtures (grouted soils) have been commonly used during the construction of underground spaces for the improvement of the strength and stiffness of soils and rocks and for the prevention of the leakage of ground water.
The stiffness, k, of a body is a measure of the resistance offered by an elastic body to deformation for an elastic body with a single degree of freedom (dof) (for example, stretching or compression of a rod), the stiffness is defined as. Macroscopic measurements of arterial stiffness are often used for clinical diagnosis and can independently predict cardiovascular events, such as coronary heart disease and stroke and mortality in elderly patients although vascular stiffening occurs ubiquitously with age and is a predictor of cardiovascular risk, little is known about how. • type of deposit, ie hard rock, rock, weathered rock, stiff soil, soft soil, and potentially liquefiable sand these general divisions introduce a measure of dynamic stiffness to the classification scheme. The measurement of surface profiles is presented as a useful and simple approach to classifying statistically the essential features of rock joints after introducing the reader to some existing determination of stiffness and other joint properties from roughness measurements | springerlink.
A measure of the maximum load that can be placed on a material before it permanently deforms or breaks engineers often use this as yield stress, σy, as a measure of a material's strength stiffness. Measurement on young's modulus and shear modulus of elasticity, and poisson's ratio, in nondispersive isotropic engineering materials background: young's modulus of elasticity is defined as the ratio of stress (force per unit area) to corresponding strain (deformation) in a material under tension or compression. Recent advances in our knowledge of the geotechnical behaviour of natural soils and weak rocks suggest that the shear stiffness controlling wave propagation in near-surface materials will be similar to those which geotechnical engineers wish to measure, and use to calculate movements of the ground around engineering structures. Laboratory-scale study of field of view and the seismic interpretation of fracture specific stiffness for fractures in rock, measurements on the laboratory scale.
International society for rock mechanics for rock mass characterization measurement of disconttinuity shear strength and stiffness of. 35 pipe stiffness factor, ei/r horizontal deflection and is easier to measure method for prediction of flexible pipe deflection 7. Reduction in strength and stiffness in rocks attributed to an increase in water content has been extensively researched on a large variety of rock types over the past decades due to the considerable variations of texture and lithology, the extent of water-weakening effect is highly varied among. Non-nuclear methods for compaction consisting of crushed rock and gravel however, fleming (1998, 2001) reported that his extensive field-stiffness measure.
Inﬂuence of outcrop scale fractures on the effective stiffness of fault damage zone rocks w ashley griffith, 1,3 pablo f sanz,2,4 and david d pollard 1 abstract—we combine detailed mapping and microstructural analyses of small fault zones in granodiorite. The rationality of the stiffness measurement was verified through the numerical simulation with flac3d the joint stiffness and elastic modulus of rock were shown to affect the precision of the. 1 introduction cement-based soil-grout mixtures (grouted soils) have been commonly used during the construction of underground spaces for the improvement of the strength and stiffness of soils and rocks and for the prevention of the leakage of ground water.